Example 2 What is a Programming Language? Programming in the sense of Microcontrollers or any computer means writing a sequence of instructions that are executed by the processor in a particular order to perform a predefined task. Programming also involves debugging and troubleshooting of instructions and instruction sequence to make sure that the desired task is performed. Like any language, Programming Languages have certain words, grammar and rules.
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Example 2 What is a Programming Language? Programming in the sense of Microcontrollers or any computer means writing a sequence of instructions that are executed by the processor in a particular order to perform a predefined task. Programming also involves debugging and troubleshooting of instructions and instruction sequence to make sure that the desired task is performed.
Like any language, Programming Languages have certain words, grammar and rules. There are three types or levels of Programming Languages for Microcontroller.
These levels are based on how closely the statements in the language resemble the operations or tasks performed by the Microcontroller. This is the lowest level of programming languages and is the language that a Microcontroller or Microprocessor actually understands. Assembly Language is a pseudo-English representation of the Machine Language. The Microcontroller Assembly Language is a combination of English like words called Mnemonics and Hexadecimal codes. It is also a low level language and requires extensive understanding of the architecture of the Microcontroller.
High-level Language The name High-level language means that you need not worry about the architecture or other internal details of a microcontroller and they use words and statements that are easily understood by humans. Why Assembly Language? Although High-level languages are easy to work with, the following reasons point out the advantage of Assembly Language The Programs written in Assembly gets executed faster and they occupy less memory.
With the help of Assembly Language, you can directly exploit all the features of a Microcontroller. Compared to High-level Languages, Assembly Language has less rules and restrictions.
Each line or statement of the assembly language program of Microcontroller consists of three fields: Label, Instruction and Comments. The arrangement of these fields or the order in which they appear is shown below. Before seeing about these three fields, let us first see an example of how a typical statement or line in an Microcontroller Assembly Language looks like. Label The Label is programmer chosen name for a Memory Location or a statement in a program.
The Label part of the statement is optional and if present, the Label must be terminated with a Colon :. An important point to remember while selecting a name for the Label is that they should reduce the need for documentation.
Instruction The Instruction is the main part of the Microcontroller Assembly Language Programming as it is responsible for the task performed by the Microcontroller.
The first part of the Instruction is the Op-code, which is short for Operation Code, specifies the operation to be performed by the Microcontroller. Op-codes in Assembly Language are called as Mnemonics. Op-codes are in binary format used in Machine Language while the Mnemonic which are equivalent to Op-codes are English like statements.
The second part of the instruction is called the Operand s and it represents the Data on which the operation is performed. The Source Operand is the Input of the operation and the Destination Operand is where the result is stored.
8051 Microcontroller Introduction and Basics
Power saving mode on some derivatives One feature of the core is the inclusion of a boolean processing engine which allows bit -level boolean logic operations to be carried out directly and efficiently on select internal registers , ports and select RAM locations. Another feature is the inclusion of four bank selectable working register sets which greatly reduce the amount of time required to perform the context switches to enter and leave interrupt service routines. With one instruction, the can switch register banks, avoiding the time consuming task of transferring the critical registers to RAM. The main program then performs serial reads and writes simply by reading and writing 8-bit data to stacks. Derivative features[ edit ] As of [update] , new derivatives are still developed by many major chipmakers, and major compiler suppliers such as IAR Systems , Keil and Altium Tasking continuously release updates. The original core ran at 12 clock cycles per machine cycle, with most instructions executing in one or two machine cycles.
Microcontrollers - 8051 Architecture
About [ edit ] The Intel is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP dual in-line package form, but the Extended models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called because they can all be programmed using assembly language, and they all share certain features although the different models all have their own special features. Some of the features that have made the popular are: 4 KB on chip program memory. Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes. Four 8-bit ports, short models have two 8-bit ports.