AN ATLAS OF ANATOMY FOR ARTISTS FRITZ SCHIDER PDF

An Atlas of Anatomy for Artists by Fritz Schider This new and enlarged third edition contains a new section on hands, selected by Heidi Lenssen; a wide selection of illustrations from the works of Vesalius, Leonardo, Goya, Ingres, Michelangelo, and others, newly augmented with 10 plates from Cloquets Anatomie de lHomme and 16 illustrations from Boscays Anatomy; 28 photographs of growing children from the research work of Nancy Bayley, plus 6 action studies each consisting of about 30 photographs from Muybridge; a bibliography compiled by Adolph Placzek; a total of more than illustrations, showing the placement, function, and characteristics of every anatomical detail of importance to the artist. For more than forty years, this book has been recognized as the most thorough reference work on art anatomy in the world. Now, it recommends itself even more strongly to the serious artist as an important study aid. Among its features are: 1 Clear, systematic presentation, taking the student step by step from the simpler skeletal drawings at the beginning to the more complicated body-in-action sketches at the end. I recommend Fritz Schiders Atlas of Anatomy for Artists to those who wish to increase their understanding of the human figure.

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All rights reserved. The Skeleton. Plates 1 and 2 show the skeleton of a young man from the front, side, and back. Note: The female skeleton is clearly differentiated from the male by the small face and skull, the narrow, short thorax, and particularly the more rounded pelvis compare the drawings.

PLATE 3. The Various Shapes of Bones. PLATE 4. The Types of Joints. The various joints are classified according to the shape of the articular surfaces. Ball and Socket Joints. The ligaments between the humerus and scapula form the joint capsule. The ligaments between the femur and pelvis. The ball and socket joint consists of a spherical head which fits into a cavity, the acetabulum, and which allows motion in all directions.

Flexion, extension, adduction, and circumduction are possible in this type of joint. Hinge Joints. The joints of the fingers, the inter-phalangeal joints, are shown as examples of this type. In a hinge joint, one bone has a transverse convex cylindrical surface and the other bone shows the reciprocal contour.

Only flexion and extension are possible in such a joint. Combination Type of Joint. The elbow joint is shown as an example of this type of joint. Three or more articular surfaces with various shapes are involved: the joint between the ulna and the humerus forms a hinge joint while the joint between the radius and the humerus is of the ball and socket type.

In addition, there is a special joint between the ulna and radius. In this combined joint, pronation and supination, flexion and extension are possible. Pronation refers to the motion of rotating the palm of the hand inwards towards the body; the pronated position of the forearm and hand is the position assumed after maximum inward rotation—the palm then faces outwards.

Supination refers to the opposite motion, i. Immobile Type of Joint. The joints between the individual wrist carpal and ankle tarsal bones and between the carpal and metacarpal, tarsal and metatarsal bones are examples of this type. PLATE 5. Schematic Cross-section Through a Joint. The important features are clearly labeled on the plate.

The Bones of the Skull. Plate 6, Fig. In Fig. The two occipital condyles with joint surfaces which articulate with concave facets on the first cervical vertebra. The two mandibular fossae in which the articular processes of the mandible move. The occipital protuberance to which the ligamentum nuchae "ligament of the neck" isattached.

The mastoid processes, the styloid processes, and the external occipital crest which serve for the origin or insertion of muscles.

The foramen magnum is the connection between the cranial cavity and the vertebral spinal canal. In this drawing, significant features as far as external appearance is concerned are: A. The two frontal prominences — rounded protuberances more definitely marked in children and women than in men; B. The two superciliary arches — slender ridges above the orbits more distinctly marked in men than in women or children; C. The glabella — a small, flat surface between the superciliary arches; D. The temporal lines — characteristically individual lines which form the lateral margins of the forehead; E.

The nasal bones; F. The zygomatic bones with their very prominent zygomatic processes forming the anterior portions of the zygomatic arches; G. The chin formed by the central part of the mandible. Plate 7, Figs. Sutural lines have not formed as yet. Instead, membrane-covered spaces are present between bones concerned.

The frontal bone consists of two portions, unfused as yet. As a result of the teeth falling out, the mandible is thinned, the angle of the mandible obtuse, the mandible extends beyond the maxilla, and the chin protrudes. The Bones of the Trunk. These plates include the bones of the trunk consisting of the spinal column and the thoracic cage. The spinal column of the adult consists of 24 distinct true vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.

The 24 true vertebrae are made up of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum consists of 5 fused false vertebrae; the coccyx, 4 fused vertebrae. The thoracic cage includes the sternum and 12 pairs of ribs.

The upper 7 ribs true ribs are directly connected to the sternum by their costal cartilages; of the lower 5 ribs false ribs , the eighth, ninth, and tenth are attached by their costal cartilages to the costal cartilage of the seventh rib, forming thereby the inferior thoracic margin, clearly indicated in the living.

The eleventh and twelfth ribs lie within the posterior abdominal wall with their anterior ends unattached "floating" ribs. PLATE Types of Vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra atlas ; note the concave articular facets into which the occipital condyles fit. The second cervical vertebra axis ; note the tooth-shaped process the dens.

The first and second cervical vertebrae, articulated. The seventh cervical vertebra; note a bifurcated spinous process and perforated transverse process. The first thoracic vertebra; note the articular facets for the ribs.

The fifth lumbar vertebra; note the massive body and strong spinous process. Movements of the Spinal Column. The nodding motion between the head and first cervical vertebra and the rotatory motion between first and second cervical vertebrae are not shown. Only the movements of the spinal column from the third cervical vertebra to the sacrum are illustrated: forward and backward flexion, lateral right and left flexion, and rotation about the longitudinal axis.

Forward and backward flexion are performed predominantly in the cervical and lumbar portions. For this purpose, the thoracic portion of the spine with the thorax may be considered as fixed. Also, lateral flexion occurs in the main in the cervical and lumbar portions.

Rotation about the longitudinal axis occurs, on the other hand, predominantly in the thoracic portion of the spine and particularly in its lower part.

Rotation from the eighth to the twelfth thoracic vertebrae may be as much as 28 degrees. Total amount of rotation from the third cervical vertebrae to the sacrum is about 47 degrees.

The Bones of the Upper Extremity. The bones of the upper extremity may be said to include: A. The clavicle and the scapula which together form the shoulder girdle; B. The humerus; C. The two bones of the forearm ulna and radius ; D.

The bones of the wrist; E. The bones of the palm and fingers. Subdivisions B, C, D, E together make up the upper extremity proper or the "free" portion of the upper extremity. Plate 14, Fig. Note: This position of the forearm is midway between supination and pronation. For purposes of strict anatomical description, the "anterior view" of the forearm is the anterior aspect of the supinated forearm with palm facing directly forward.

The outer aspect of the forearm and hand in this position is also called the lateral or radial side. The inner aspect is also called the medial or ulnar side. Note the S-shaped clavicle, the apex of the shoulder formed by the acromion process of the scapula, the coracoid process of the scapula, the humerus with its characteristic joint surfaces, the bones of the forearm articulating with the humerus, and finally, below the forearm, the bones of the wrist, palm, and fingers carpal bones, metacarpal bones and phalanges.

Note the foreshortened clavicle and acromion process, the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the crossed bones of the forearm, and the lateral aspect of the wrist and hand.

Plate 15, Fig. Note the axillary border of the scapula, the foreshortened clavicle, the clearly demonstrated head of the humerus and lateral epicondyle of the humerus, the adjacent S-shaped bones of the forearm, and the side view of the wrist and hand.

Note that the scapula is seen in its entire extent and that both epicondyles of the humerus are well demonstrated. Extensor muscles are attached to the lateral epicondyle; flexor muscles to the medial epicondyle. The ulna is well seen, especially its upper end or olecranon, and its lower end, the styloid process and the head which form a prominence just above the wrist. The Bones of the Lower Extremity. The benes of the lower extremity consist of: A. The two innominate bones Each innominate bone is made up of three bones distinct in development but fused in the adult—the pubis, ischium, and ilium.

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