On Length and Shortness of Life Introduction The remaining sections return to the sphere of physiology; they discuss how life is maintained in the organism, and what the causes are which lead to deterioration and dissolution. Although the sections have received separate titles, the discussion is really continuous, and may be conveniently analysed as a whole. Maintenance of Life. All matter as it occurs in nature exhibits contrary qualities which act upon and tend to destroy one another. This doctrine runs all through Greek physical speculation. Aristotle understood the distinction well enough, but he seems often—at any rate when discussing traditional or popular views—to have used the term in its primitive sense.

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It was written around BC. The whole work is roughly a study in animal anatomy and physiology; it aims to provide a scientific understanding of the parts of animals and asks whether these parts were designed or arose by chance. On Divination in Sleep is a text by Aristotle in which he discusses precognitive dreams. Sense and Sensibilia is one of the short treatises by Aristotle that make up the Parva Naturalia. On Sleep is a text by Aristotle, one of the Parva Naturalia.

On the Soul is a major treatise written by Aristotle c. Although its topic is the soul, it is not about spirituality but rather a work in what might best be described as biopsychology, a description of the subject of psychology within a biological framework. His discussion centres on the kinds of souls possessed by different kinds of living things, distinguished by their different operations. Thus plants have the capacity for nourishment and reproduction, the minimum that must be possessed by any kind of living organism.

Lower animals have, in addition, the powers of sense-perception and self-motion action. Humans have all these as well as intellect. The treatise presents the art of dialectic — the invention and discovery of arguments in which the propositions rest upon commonly held opinions or endoxa.

Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is "being qua being," or being insofar as it is being. It examines what can be asserted about any being insofar as it is and not because of any special qualities it has. Also covered are different kinds of causation, form and matter, the existence of mathematical objects, and a prime-mover God.

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials. Many components were considered in ancient Greek medicine, intertwining the spiritual with the physical.

Specifically, the ancient Greeks believed health was affected by the humors, geographic location, social class, diet, trauma, beliefs, and mindset. Early on the ancient Greeks believed that illnesses were "divine punishments" and that healing was a "gift from the Gods". As trials continued wherein theories were tested against symptoms and results, the pure spiritual beliefs regarding "punishments" and "gifts" were replaced with a foundation based in the physical, i.

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

These areas had been under a Muslim rule for considerable time, and still had substantial Arabic-speaking populations to support their search. The combination of Muslim accumulated knowledge, substantial numbers of Arabic-speaking scholars, and the new Christian rulers made these areas intellectually attractive, as well as culturally and politically accessible to Latin scholars. A typical story is that of Gerard of Cremona, who is said to have made his way to Toledo, well after its reconquest by Christians in , because he arrived at a knowledge of each part of [philosophy] according to the study of the Latins, nevertheless, because of his love for the Almagest, which he did not find at all amongst the Latins, he made his way to Toledo, where seeing an abundance of books in Arabic on every subject, and pitying the poverty he had experienced among the Latins concerning these subjects, out of his desire to translate he thoroughly learnt the Arabic language Sophonias was a Byzantine monk who wrote commentaries or paraphrases of the works of Aristotle including De Anima, Sophistici Elenchi, Prior Analytics, and the Parva Naturalia, which are still extant.

Little is known about Sophonias, except that he was probably the monk sent by Michael IX Palaiologos on an abortive mission to arrange a marriage between Michael and a western princess around Michael of Ephesus or Michael Ephesius wrote important commentaries on Aristotle, including the first full commentary on the Sophistical Refutations, which established the regular study of that text.

The Rhetoric to Alexander is a treatise traditionally attributed to Aristotle. It was written by a Pseudo-Aristotle instead and is now generally believed to be the work of Anaximenes of Lampsacus. On Marvellous Things Heard is a collection of thematically arranged anecdotes traditionally attributed to Aristotle but written by a Pseudo-Aristotle. The material included in the collection mainly deals with the natural world. The work is an example of the paradoxography literary genre.

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On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath

He studied under Plato at Athens and taught there 47 ; subsequently he spent three years at the court of a former pupil, Hermeias, in Asia Minor and at this time married Pythias, one of Hermeias s relations. After Aristotle, great Greek philosopher, researcher, reasoner, and writer, born at Stagirus in BCE, was the son of Nicomachus, a physician, and Phaestis. After some time at Mitylene, in 2 he was appointed by King Philip of Macedon to be tutor of his teen-aged son Alexander. After Philip s death in , Aristotle became head of his own school of Peripatetics , the Lyceum at Athens. Because of anti-Macedonian feeling there after Alexander s death in , he withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died in


Parva Naturalia

By and large, they can also be read as inquiries into different passages in the development of a specific theme psycho-physiology, for want of a better term in the history of ancient and medieval philosophy. Each of these accounts or inquiries presents original research designed to widen and deepen our understanding of the episode in hand. The contributors to the volume, all recognized experts in their respective fields, were not assigned specific topics for treatment according to any systematic plan; instead, some of them were invited to submit original papers on topics selected at their own discretion and on the basis of their own expertise, whereas others were asked to comment on one or another of these papers. As a result, certain episodes in the history of the reception of the Parva naturalia—typically ones considered by contemporary scholars to be of particular significance—will be found to have captured the attention of more than one contributor; others, alas, are only touched upon in passing or not at all. For the benefit of those readers who legitimately wonder how one or another of these episodes connects with the rest and what the missing episodes were all about , the following introduction attempts to provide a skeletal outline of the study and reception of the Parva naturalia through the ages, with the bibliographical references necessary for putting flesh on the bones also regarding those parts of the story which are not directly addressed in any of the thirteen essays. In this inquiry, Aristotle says, the results of the preceding discussion must be assumed.

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