Block Diagram of the project: You will get a CD with this project containing following documents: Project Report in pdf format and in word format. And the following are the important modules in this project: IR Transmitter: We have implemented the Person counter module using 2 transmitters and 2 receivers. We have used Infra-Red transmitters. The reason behind choosing IR LED is, infrared beams are not visible to human eyes and they are not easily triggered by other sources in the environment.

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Block Diagram of the project: You will get a CD with this project containing following documents: Project Report in pdf format and in word format. And the following are the important modules in this project: IR Transmitter: We have implemented the Person counter module using 2 transmitters and 2 receivers. We have used Infra-Red transmitters. The reason behind choosing IR LED is, infrared beams are not visible to human eyes and they are not easily triggered by other sources in the environment.

It is an active-low device, which means it gives low output when it receives the Infrared rays. So when the IR rays are interrupted by any person then Microcontroller will receive a high pulse from the IR receiver. This display should be placed outside the room.

Relay: We have used a volt relay. Since Microcontroller can not turn on relay directly, we have used a Relay driver circuit. This circuit consists of a transistor that is used to turn on relay through Microcontroller. We have used an SPDT relay.

In this project, we have provided 2 pin connector as an output of Relay. One of these 2 pins is connected to the Normally open terminal of the Relay which is also known as NO contact. Darlington pair: It is used to increase the current gain. The output of IC is given to the Darlington circuit. Microcontroller: This is the CPU central processing unit of our project.

We have used 89s51 which is a Microcontroller of microcontroller family. The various functions of Microcontroller are like: Bidirectional Visitor counter section — It is bidirectional because we have used 2 sensors on a single door.

The microcontroller does the function of Reading the digital input from two infrared receivers and calculates the number of persons from them. Display — Microcontroller sends the person count to LCD so that the person operating this project should read the number of persons inside the room.

Automatic Room Light controller section — Microcontroller turns on the Room Light when the person count is greater than or equal to one. And turn off lights when the count is zero. This is done by Relay. Since the relay is used, you can connect an AC bulb or DC bulb as per your requirement. We will provide a bulb holder to connect the AC bulb.

How to give a demo of this project: There are 2 transmitters and 2 receivers placed in front of each other. Swap any object like mobile or your fingers not single finger in front of those sensors. Then Microcontroller increments or decrements the counter. Once the count is non-zero, the room light is turned on using a relay.

Now swap object in reverse direction then the system decrements the count. And room light is turned off once the count becomes zero. Purpose of LDR: Light sensor — LDR will detect the sunlight in the room or we can say LDR is used to detect daytime If there is enough sunlight in the room which means it is daytime then the relay will not be turned on even if the person count is greater than zero. In this mode, it will work only as a Person counter to save the electricity and works as an energy saver.

And if there is insufficient sunlight in the room then only the relay will be turned on so as to turn on the bulb. Applications of the project: Digital Visitor Counter can be used in various rooms like seminar hall, conference hall where the capacity of the room is limited and should not be exceeded. The project will display an actual number of persons inside the room.

Automatic Room light Controller project can also be used in our home because many times we come out of our bedroom or any other room and we forgot to turn off the room light. The Bidirectional person counter project can be used in Cinema halls, multiplex, malls as well as in temples to count the number of a person entering inside. So that these places should not get overcrowded to avoid congestion. Advantages of the project: The main advantage of this project is that it helps in energy conservation.

Because when there is nobody inside the room then lights are automatically turned off. Human efforts to count the number of persons are eliminated. Since this project does the automatic person counting with the help of two sensors installed on the door frame.

We can send this data to a remote location using a mobile or internet. How to place these sensors on the door: Below is the diagrammatic representation of how the two sensors should be placed on the door frame. Question and answers about this project: Question: Why have you used Infrared sensors to count the no of persons? What are the advantages of using Infrared sensors? Answer: The advantage of using Infrared sensor is that IR rays are not visible to human eyes.

Also, IR rays are not affected by any other sources. For example: If you use LDR as a sensor then it can be easily triggered by sunlight or any other sources of light. AC or DC? We can either use an AC fan or a DC fan as well. Relay provides isolation from the Microcontroller circuit. Question: Suppose two people walk into the room in matching steps interval will it sense one intrusion?

Answer: If there is no gap between two persons, then Microcontroller will sense that only 1 person has entered into the room. There should be some time delay at-least half seconds delay between 2 persons Question: Are you using any separate counter IC for counting the persons or Microcontroller itself is configured as the counter? Answer: We have not used any separate IC for the counting.

Microcontroller does all the functions. It is central processing unit for the project. Answer: We have used to 2 pairs of Transmitter and receiver. These should be placed on the door frame, in-front of each other. If a person enters the room then first receiver will cut and then second receiver will cut. Then Microcontroller will increment the count. And if any person leaves the room then second receiver will cut and then first receiver will cut.

Then Microcontroller decrements the count. Question: Concerning pets in the room, are they likely to trigger the system? What are the ways of avoiding false triggering?

Answer: Yes, your Pets can trigger the sensors. To avoid this situation, sensors should be placed at the higher level from ground. You can keep them at 4 feet from ground. Is it possible that in entry operation, the RFID will count and in the exit operation, the infrared will count? Answer: Yes, this is possible. We can implement this project using RFID reader.

But when the person is leaving the room, the infrared exit operation will be activated and the counter decrements by one and the lights will turn off if nobody is in the room. The RFID sensor will be placed outside the room for the Entry and the infrared sensors will be placed at side of the door for the exit operation.

But leaving the room, the infrared will do the task and the counter decrements. How to overcome this situation? Answer: In some specific seminar hall, conference rooms and study rooms, sunlight can not reach in daytime as well. This is to give some presentations on projector or big screens. In these cases lights are turned on even in daytime. In other cases, where sunlight is enough and lights are not required in day time, we can turn off the project so it will not function.

And then we can turn on the project in evening time. Question: I tried to replicate the circuit of the transmitter and receiver on a bread board using the given components. The output of both transmitters was adjusted to 38 KHz. But the IR receiver is not giving active low output. What can be the problem? Answer: Use a potentiometer to adjust the frequency of transmitter circuit. Can u suggest any other sensors which will detect only human being or human body?

Question: I have prepared the circuit of timer which is giving output of 38khz. Problem is that the Red LED connected to the IR receiver is always active always turned on and only blinks when I try to cut the infrared beam from the arrangement of IR transmitter and receiver which you sent me. Answer: I have reviewed circuit and have 2 suggestions. And the third terminal of potentiometer RV is left open. It should be connected to second terminal of variable resistor RV. Then set the resistance between pin 7 and 6 to If the circuit is still not working properly then try varying the potentiometer, reduce the resistance.

LED should turn off when Transmitter is facing towards Receiver. Question:Can we get volt as output of the relay because here in Canada we have lights works in volt? The transformer works at V but here in Canada we have V so do we change the transformer to v if yes what transformer we need?

Secondly is it possible if we remove the transformer and directly supply 9volts to the circuit?


Automatic Room Lighting System using Microcontroller

Power Supply Circuit Description Let us see the design of the circuit for automatic room lighting project. The circuit diagram shows all the connections with respect to microcontroller. If you are doing this project on a development board, some of the connections mentioned in the circuit diagram might not be necessary. Also, we have used modules for Relay and IR Sensor and hence, the connections are shown with respect to those modules only. Corresponding circuit diagrams are also provided. The 3 control pins of LCD i. The detailed circuit of the 5V Relay module used in the project is explained in the component description section.


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