Subjectto statutoryexception andto the provisionsofrelevant collective licensingagreements, no reproductionofany part may take placewithout the written permissionofCambridge University Press. Acknowledgments given on pages Ewily Ra,imes Lucy Rairnes, d:bert c0nst6ntly with whlte a. Such a range of abilities can easily be addressedin a book ofthis kind: as we teachersknow only too well, even advancedstudents who speak and understand English with apparent easecan still make many errors when they write and can still have surprising gaps in understanding. Part II contains instruction and exercises glossedreadings; Part I contains grammar chapters that use sixteen the readings for examplesand exercises. In Part I, each grammar chapter 1 through 27 contains the following: o An excerpt from one of the sixteen readings in Part II.
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Subjectto statutoryexception andto the provisionsofrelevant collective licensingagreements, no reproductionofany part may take placewithout the written permissionofCambridge University Press. Acknowledgments given on pages Ewily Ra,imes Lucy Rairnes, d:bert c0nst6ntly with whlte a.
Such a range of abilities can easily be addressedin a book ofthis kind: as we teachersknow only too well, even advancedstudents who speak and understand English with apparent easecan still make many errors when they write and can still have surprising gaps in understanding.
Part II contains instruction and exercises glossedreadings; Part I contains grammar chapters that use sixteen the readings for examplesand exercises. In Part I, each grammar chapter 1 through 27 contains the following: o An excerpt from one of the sixteen readings in Part II.
A seriesof tasks for inductive analysis of the form and function of a grammar point in the reading r Explanations of grammar points, with charts, tables, and examples r Exercises,both oral and written o Authentic student writing for editing.
A focusedwriting task that elicits the structure. Editing advice Chapters 28 and 29 address concernsof style and punctuation. Thesechaptersalso provide examplesand exercises In addition, the appendices provide students with easy access to irregular verb forms and spelling conventions. The book, with its inductive approach to grammar, has four distinctive teaching features: readings, clear presentation ofthe basic principles of grammar, a wide variety of exercises, and tasks for writing and editing.
The sixteen glossed readings cover a variety of topics and levels of difficulty. These readings, from nonfiction, journalism, and textbooks, have been carefully chosenas representativeof the sorts of writing students are likely to come across at this stage of their studies in both assigned reading for coursesand pleasure reading.
Each reading provides the introductory focus for one or more grammar chapters as well as the basis for exercisesin other chapters. Why readings? Why not just isolated sentences written to illustrate a grammatical structure? Well, quite apart from the fact that they are, I believe, far more interesting in themselves than any passagesconcocted with the sole purpose of illustrating grammatical points in a textbook,these readings show students the real thing.
This is indeed "how English works. It describesthe common,frequently used structures of English for intermediate students and for more advanced students who have gaps in their knowledgeor need review. It explains common exceptionsto general principles, helping students to make senseof the patterns they see when they read. However, it does not attempt to coverevery nuanceofthe language,every exceptionto every rule, every facet of specialized disciplines. Students need to know patterns that they can rely on, that will work for them rnosl of the time.
This book, then, offers broad strokes, not minute detail. Wherever possible,boxes, charts, and tables are used to clarify and highlight grammatical structures.
A Wide Variety of Exercises Clear Presentation To suit as many different learning and teaching styles as possible,the exercisesinclude. Exercisesrelated to the readings. Exercisesusing short, illustrative sentences Some of the exercisesallow students to focus on a grammatical feature by presenting it in a short, illustrative pattern sentenceof a type familiar to them from other language-learningactivities.
Many other exercises,however, use the readings to provide subject matter and context. Exercises designated as "oral" can be used in class. Others, primarily written, can be done in class or as a homework assignment. The nature of spoken communication simply does not leave room for extensivemonitoring or for review of the languageproduced. While the book provides frequent opportunity for oral practice, many of its exercisesare designedto focus on reading and writing, when students have time to analyze,recall, discuss,and apply principles of grammar.
In addition, eachchapter ends with a writing task designedto elicit the principles of the chapter. Students produce a text they can examine and revise, thus seeing how their English works. The book links writing and grammar with editing techniques.
At the end of each chapter, editing guidelines that focus on the grammar to principle ofthe chapter are presented. Students are encouraged use what they have learned about the workings ofEnglish to correct errors and make improvements-and they do this both with their own writing and with the samplesof authentic student writing included in each chapter. So in eachchapter, reading leads to analysis,which leadsto study of principles followed by practice, which then leads to writing and editing-that is, to the application of principles of grammar.
You can begin with the grammar chapters, referring to the complete readings only when necessary. With How English Worhs,my students say that they start to see grammar as an interesting, vital part of a living language,not just as somethingto get right or wrong in textbook sentences. They helped me by working and commenting on exercises developed here and generously allowed me to include samples of their own writing.
Their enthusiasm and willingness to learn were a constant source of inspiration. I am grateful to all of them for their valuable advice. All the staff members at St. It was especially rewarding to work with Joyce Hinnefeld, project editor, who kept track of cuts, changes, and last-minute revising without getting flustered. Susan Anker, editor-in-chief, helped guide the development of this book; thanks go to her again for giving me the benefit of her knowledge, common sense, and warm encouragement.
No wonder. By the sixth or seventh book, they must be tired of seeing me sitting at my processor while they make dinner and do all those nasty household chores. So much of this is really their book. Subject and Predicate a. Phrases and Clauses a. Questions and Negatives a. The form ofquestions 26 b. Negatives 29 d. Tag questions 32 f. Proper Nouns a. Countable a. Articles a. Verb Phrases a. Completeverb phrases 71 b.
Active and passiveverb phrases 72 c. The time clusters of verb phrases:present-future and past 73 d. Verb Tenses: Overview a. Referring to basic time 79 b. Referring to time before basic time perfect aspect 80 c.
Referring to an event or action in progressat basic time progressiveaspect 83 d. Verbs not used with progressiveaspect 84 e. Referring to time both before basic and in prog;ess perfect progressiveaspect 85 f. Verb Tenses: Past a. ITS Verb Tenses: Present a. Modal Auxiliaries a. Meanings of modal auxiliaries: ability, permission, polite questions and statements b.
Meanings of modal auxiliaries: advisability, necessity,no necessity,prohibition c. Meanings of modal auxiliaries: expectation,possibility, and logical deduction d. Simple form after the modal auxiliaries e.
The uses of would f. Active a. Verb Forms: Summary a. Forms of the verb b. Troublesomeverb forms c. The verb system at a glance d.
ANN RAIMES HOW ENGLISH WORKS PDF
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How English Works: A Grammar Handbook with Readings Instructor's Manual
HOW ENGLISH WORKS ANN RAIMES PDF