Current sideline protocols test cognition and balance, but do not include assessments of visual performance. We investigated how adding a vision-based test of rapid number naming could increase our ability to identify concussed athletes on the sideline at youth and collegiate levels. Non-concussed athletes were also assessed as control participants under the same testing conditions. Among 12 athletes who sustained concussions during their athletic season, K-D scores worsened from baseline by an average of 5. The vision-based K-D test showed the greatest capacity to distinguish concussed vs. This observation in mild traumatic brain injury patients reflects the common involvement and widespread distribution of the brain pathways dedicated to vision.
|Published (Last):||7 July 2012|
|PDF File Size:||7.61 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||19.75 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Published online Feb 2. Corresponding author. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Laura J. Received Sep 21; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a cause of short- and long-term neurologic symptoms among athletes. The King-Devick K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming reading aloud single-digit numbers from 3 test cards , and captures impairment of eye movements, attention, language, and other correlates of suboptimal brain function.
We investigated the K-D test as a potential rapid sideline screening for concussion in a cohort of boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Methods: The K-D test was administered prefight and postfight. Differences in postfight K-D scores and changes in scores from prefight to postfight were compared for athletes with head trauma during the fight vs those without.
Those with loss of consciousness showed the greatest worsening from prefight to postfight. High levels of test-retest reliability were observed intraclass correlation coefficient 0.
Conclusions: The K-D test is an accurate and reliable method for identifying athletes with head trauma, and is a strong candidate rapid sideline screening test for concussion.
Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention in the lay press, but has been a topic of interest in the medical literature for nearly a decade. The King-Devick K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming.
We determined if athletes with head trauma and loss of consciousness during matches differed in terms of their postfight K-D time scores or with regard to changes in scores from prefight to postfight. For this cross-sectional study, boxers and MMA fighters were recruited and enrolled prior to sparring sessions and matches conducted in the Boston, MA, area.
Boxers were amateurs recruited by their gym manager and invited to participate in 3-round sparring sessions. Standard and routine headgear and sparring-grade boxing gloves were worn. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. The King-Devick test. The K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming.
Standardized instructions are used, and the test requires less than 2 minutes to administer. The K-D test includes one practice demonstration card and 3 test cards, as shown in figure 1. To perform the K-D test, participants were asked to read the numbers on each card from left to right as quickly as possible but without making any errors. The sum of the 3 test card time scores constituted the summary score for the entire test, the K-D time score. Numbers of errors made in reading the test cards were recorded.
King-Devick Test Proves Useful in Outpatient Concussion Assessment
The King-Devick Test in association with Mayo Clinic K-D Test is a common sideline concussion test used by medical professionals, as well as trained parents and coaches. What is the King-Devick Test? The K-D Test evaluates saccadic eye movements, or rapid movements with both eyes, as well as processing speed and visual tracking. The test times each patient and tracks their errors as they read single-digit numbers displayed on an electronic tablet.