Mushicage My third example — an adoption of norms and values from the host culture — is also the most fundamental transformation, and lysgawrd theorists deny that this takes place at all. First of all, everything said by my interviewees was filtered by me as note-taker. When we discuss cultural adaptation, I think it is important to understand what type of people is involved. As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations.

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Yozshurn The degree of culture shock is closely related to the familiarity — or unfamiliarity — of the new environment, which means that movements between similar cultures will reduce the amount of stress considerably. It awakens the sojourner from the complacency of the holiday stage and forces him or her to confront fundamental differences in cultural norms and values. U-curve — Moniviestin Using Lysgaard as their theoretical basis, Iris Varner and Linda Beamer explain culture shock in terms of four stages: Ideally we like to think of interviews in terms of a dialogue between the interviewer, who is open-minded about the experiences conveyed, and the interviewee, who narrates the stories as they occurred — not what he or she would have liked to happen, or what he or she thinks the interviewer would want to hear about a given situation.

With regard to cultural assimilation, an early concern for many sojourners is the establishment of a social network. I think it is important to realise that cultural assimilation cannot be achieved within a year or two, but requires a longer time-span. There are a number of similarities between the process I describe and cultural adaptation model presented by the theorists.

First of all, my interviews have left me with the impression that acculturation is a very lengthy process.

When comparing Scotland to Denmark, the expatriates describe their home country as an old-fashioned, masculine culture and generally prefer a more equal relationship between man and woman. I do not think the sense of culture shock will ever disappear completely. As they gain an inside perspective on their new culture, the frustration felt by sojourners is gradually reduced until it reaches a minimum. They are highly significant to the present discussion, however, because they reveal that no cultural values are static.

After an initial honeymoon phase, during which work colleagues had accommodated Fiona and her husband Andrew in every possible way, the couple was left to themselves. Stella Ting-Toomey distinguishes between sojourners and immigrants, and I think she is right to point out the differences between the two groups Ting-Toomey In other words, immigration within the same cultural region — i.

Adding to such worries the social stigma attached to welfare in many parts of the world, it is hardly surprising if recent immigrants are overwhelmed by frustration rather than excitement. Although their structural assimilation was fast, the Scots agreed that adaptation only really took off after the lywgaard shock endured during the second year, and that their cultural adjustment never really ended. Others would draw on work colleagues in order to obtain an insider perspective on their new culture.

The second lesson to be drawn from my discussion concerns the length of the acculturation process. Compared to the four primary identities abovethey lysgaatd less stable and are driven by external situational features and are subsequently internalized by individuals operating in the society.

Lysgaard interviewees agree that they knew very little about the country before their arrival, and that they might as well have ended up somewhere else. As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations. Nevertheless, several of the aspects noticed by my interviewees indicate a shift of fundamental beliefs and values.

I suppose I expected references to more explicit parts of Scottish culture such as lysgaarf, bagpipes, national history, and politics.

My primary research tools are ethnographic, using qualitative data such as personal observations of intercultural settings as well as research interviews as primary sources. With regard to methodology I recommend the use of a qualitative approach in spite the weaknesses identified above. An example of this is offered by Fiona, who in the interview recalls how on a visit to Britain it dawned upon her that she looked and dressed differently. They will encounter local authorities in the form of their GP, tax officers and various municipal bodies, but as they normally have a job upon their arrival — or will find one very soon thereafter — they are perceived as a positive addition to the local workforce rather than a potential burden.

According to the methodological categories established by Dr. Learning from practice, I argue that sojourners will change lysgaatd a result of their stationing overseas; that the intercultural skills obtained by employees during their sojourn represent a valuable resource for international business; and that companies have an obligation to assist sojourners upon their return to their home culture.

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Mazunos The structure of such groupings may be formal or informal and can reflect values other than national ones. The first symptom of language change was for me a degree lysgarad confusion when a third language was added to my daily mixture of English and Danish. My interviewees describe their two-year crisis in different ways. In co-operation with the employees companies may plan for the homecoming, i. Search Site only in current section. She was aware of the dress code attached to her professional status in Britain and would put on a business suit in order to blend in with her surroundings.



Vutaur As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations. They were in their early twenties when they left Scotland, and with the exception of one couple travelled on their own. To these may be lusgaard a possible reverse culture shock, which I have chosen to ignore because it is of limited use in relation to the present argument. When examining the data offered by the interviewees, I may have attempted to impose a structure on my material, connecting interview fragments that are not necessarily compatible. Because they have gained a new cultural perspective, the sojourners may find it difficult to settle into their old ways. Initial excitement gradually gives way to everyday reality, which leaves little time or energy for reflection. Compared to the four primary identities abovethey are less stable and are driven by external situational features and are subsequently internalized by individuals operating in the society.

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