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Milutin and his twin sister were the oldest of seven children. Their father was a merchant, landlord, and a local politician who died when Milutin was eight.
As a result, Milutin and his siblings were raised by his mother, grandmother, and an uncle. His three brothers died of tuberculosis as children.
As his health was fickle, Milutin received his elementary education at home in "the classroom without walls" , learning from his father Milan, private teachers, and from numerous relatives and friends of the family, some of whom were renowned philosophers, inventors, and poets. He attended secondary school in nearby Osijek , completing it in In October , at the age of seventeen, he moved to Vienna to study Civil Engineering at the Vienna University of Technology and graduated in with the best marks.
His every sentence was the masterpiece of strict logic, without any extra word, without any error. He researched concrete and wrote a theoretical evaluation of it as a building material. He then worked for an engineering firm in Vienna, using his knowledge to design structures. He built dams, bridges, viaducts, aqueducts, and other structures in reinforced concrete throughout Austria-Hungary.
He patented a new type of reinforced concrete ribbed ceiling and published the first paper on armored concrete named "Contribution to the theory of reinforced armored pillars". He published the second paper on the same subject based on new results in In , he published a paper titled "On membranes of same opposition" in which he proves that the ideal shape for a water reservoir of equally thick walls is that of a drop of water.
His six patents were officially recognized and his reputation in the profession was enormous, bringing abundant financial wealth. Though he continued to pursue his investigations of various problems pertaining to the application of reinforced concrete, he decided to concentrate on fundamental research.
The idea of possible astronomically-related climate changes was first considered by astronomers John Herschel , — and then postulated by geologists Louis Agassiz , — In parallel, there were also several attempts to explain the climate change by the influence of astronomical forces the most comprehensive of them was the theory put forward by James Croll in the s. He began working on it in , after he had realized that "most of meteorology is nothing but a collection of innumerable empirical findings, mainly numerical data, with traces of physics used to explain some of them Mathematics was even less applied, nothing more than elementary calculus Advanced mathematics had no role in that science He published the first paper on the subject entitled " Contribution to the mathematical theory of climate " in Belgrade on 5 April He wrote: " He published a paper on the subject entitled "About the issue of the astronomical theory of ice ages" in He was arrested as a citizen of Serbia and was interned by the Austro-Hungarian army in Neusiedl am See.
He described his first day in prison, where he waited to be taken to the Esseg fortress as a prisoner of war, in the following words: "The heavy iron door closed behind me I sat on my bed, looked around the room and started to take in my new social circumstances… In my hand luggage which I brought with me were my already printed or only started works on my cosmic problem; there was even some blank paper.
I looked over my works, took my faithful ink pen and started to write and calculate When after midnight I looked around in the room, I needed some time to realize where I was. The small room seemed to me like an accommodation for one night during my voyage in the Universe. He used mathematical methods to study the current climate of inner planets of the solar system.
In he published a paper entitled "Investigation of the climate of the planet Mars". Also, he concluded that: "This large temperature difference between the ground and lower layers of the atmosphere is not unexpected. Great transparency for solar radiation makes that is the climate of Mars very similar to altitudes climate of our Earth. He continued his professorial career, becoming a full professor at the University of Belgrade. From to , he wrote and published seven papers on mathematical theories of climate both on the Earth and on the other planets.
He formulated a precise, numerical climatological model with the capacity for reconstruction of the past and prediction of the future, and established the astronomical theory of climate as a generalized mathematical theory of insolation.
Immediately after the publication of this book in , meteorologists recognized it as a significant contribution to the study of contemporary climate. The works of Vilhelm Bjerknes in , and Lewis Fry Richardson in are the foundation of modern numerical weather prediction.
They agreed that summer insolation is a crucial factor for climate. These curves showed the variations in insolation which correlated with the series of ice ages. Each cycle works on a different time-scale and each affects the amount of solar energy received by the planets. Such changes in the geometry of an orbit lead to the changes in the insolation — the quantity of heat received by any spot at the surface of a planet. These orbital variations , which are influenced by gravity of the Moon , Sun, Jupiter , and Saturn , form the basis of the Milankovitch cycle.
He reduced six Lagrangean - Laplacian elliptical elements to two vectors determining the mechanics of planetary movements. By applying those vectors he significantly simplified the calculation and directly obtained all the formulas of the classical theory of secular perturbations.
Then Milankovich treated the two-body and the many-body problems of celestial mechanics. He accepted but corrected the Le Verrier and Stockwell computation by using newer and more accurate values for the masses of the planets in the solar system.
Milankovic served as a representative of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia there for many years. This textbook used vector calculus systematically to solve problems of celestial mechanics. He succeeded in defining the mathematical relationship between summer insolation and the altitude of the snow line. In this way he defined the increase of snow which would occur as a consequence of any given change in summer insolation.
Geologists received a graph for presenting bordering altitudes of ice covers any period of time during the last , years. Main article: Paleomagnetism Coal mining in Svalbard on However, one of the main findings that especially preoccupied Wegener and then Milankovitch was the discovery of big coal reserves on the Svalbard Islands, in the Arctic Ocean , which could not form at the present latitude of these islands.
In the meantime, Wegener died from hypothermia or heart failure in November during his fourth expedition to Greenland. In the period from to , Milankovitch worked on the problem of numerical secular rotation pole movements. The Earth as a whole he considered as a fluid body , which in the case of short-duration forces behaves as a solid body , but under an influence behaves as an elastic body. Using vector analysis he made a mathematical model of the Earth to create a theory of secular motion of the terrestrial poles.
He derived the equation of secular trajectory of a terrestrial pole and also the equation of pole motion along this trajectory. The equations further led to a determination of the 25 most characteristic points with pole trajectories for both hemispheres. He drew a map of the path of the poles over the past million years and stated that changes happen in the interval of 5 million years minimum to 30 million years maximum.
On this basis he could calculate the secular pole trajectory. In his conclusion about this problem, he wrote: For an extraterrestrial observer, the displacement of the pole takes place in such a way that the The lecture on the apparent shift of poles was held at a congress of Balkan mathematicians in Athens in Paleomagnetic evidence, both reversals and polar wandering data, led the revival of the theories of continental drift and its transformation into plate tectonics in the s and s.
This tome was entitled "Canon of Insolation of the Earth and Its Application to the Problem of the Ice Ages", which covered his nearly three decades of research, including a large number of formulas, calculations and schemes, but also summarized universal laws through which it was possible to explain cyclical climate change and the attendant 11 ice ages — his namesake Milankovitch cycles.
The manuscript was submitted to print on 2 April — four days before the attack of Nazi Germany and its allies on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the bombing of Belgrade on 6 April , the printing house where his work was being printed was destroyed; however, almost all of the printed sheet paper remained undamaged in the printing warehouse.
The "Canon" was issued in  by the Royal Serbian Academy , pages in quarto, and was printed in German as "Kanon der Erdbestrahlung und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem". The mathematical climate of the Earth" "The ice age, its mechanism, structure and chronology". His autobiography would be published after the war, entitled "Recollection, Experiences and Vision" in Belgrade in In the same year, he became a member of the Italian Institute of Paleontology.
Milutin suffered a stroke and died in Belgrade in In , scientists compiled a time scale of climatic events in the past , years from deep-sea cores. He was doing research in this theory as of In fact his papers on this matter were on special relativity and both are on Michelson experiment now known as Michelson—Morley experiment which gave the strong evidence against aether theory.
In the light of the Michelson experiment he discussed on the validity of the second postulate of special theory of relativity , that the speed of light is the same in all reference frame. It made centennial years leap years if division by left a remainder of or , unlike the Gregorian rule which required that division by left no remainder.
In May a congress of some Eastern Orthodox churches adopted the calendar;   however, only the removal of 1—13 October and the revised leap year algorithm were adopted by a number of Eastern Orthodox churches. The dates of Easter and related holy days are still computed using the Julian calendar.
In honour of his achievements in astronomy, an impact crater on the far side of the Moon was given the name Milankovic at the 14th IAU General Assembly in Since the Milutin Milankovic Medal has been awarded by the European Geophysical Society called the EGU since for contributions in the area of long-term climate and modeling.
Srpska Kr. Sava, Mathematische Klimalehre und astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen. In: Gutenberg, B. Pantic, N.
Kroz vasionu i vekove
Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Pit rated it it was amazing Jul 31, They were published in a Serbian magazine and later collected in a book, Through Distant Worlds and Timespublished in Serbian and later in German. Kroz vasionu i vekove — jedna astronomija za svakoga Zavod za udzbenike — Beograd Language: Retrieved 4 July This explained the ice ages occurring in the geological past of the Earth, as well as the climate changes on the Earth which can be expected in the future. Vasuonu Music Stream millions of songs. Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. Amila rated it it was amazing Mar 11, They serve as vehicles for discussion of the history of astronomy, climatology vekoe science. U ovom njenom hramu spustimo se, mi skromne hadzije, skruseno, na kolena.
Kroz Vasionu i Vekove
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