Blank areas or system off Control layout and design Aircraft controls supplement aircraft displays in communicating to the pilot. It provides a two way interaction between the aircraft and the crew. Controls should be easy to reach and be positioned appropriately in accordance to their usage. Controls which are used frequently should be positioned in a more prominent position. Controls should move in the natural sense and controls that complement each other or frequently used in conjunction of each other should be grouped together if possible Jarrett, [ 11 ]. Standardisation Standardisation is important to avoid unnecessary confusion Roskam, [ 15 ].

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Sukhoi Superjet glass cockpit Unlike the previous era of glass cockpits—where designers merely copied the look and feel of conventional electromechanical instruments onto cathode ray tubes—the new displays represent a true departure.

They look and behave very similarly to other computers, with windows and data that can be manipulated with point-and-click devices. They also add terrain, approach charts, weather, vertical displays, and 3D navigation images. The improved concepts enable aircraft makers to customize cockpits to a greater degree than previously.

All of the manufacturers involved have chosen to do so in one way or another—such as using a trackball , thumb pad or joystick as a pilot-input device in a computer-style environment. Many of the modifications offered by the aircraft manufacturers improve situational awareness and customize the human-machine interface to increase safety.

Synthetic Vision systems display a realistic 3D depiction of the outside world similar to a flight simulator , based on a database of terrain and geophysical features in conjunction with the attitude and position information gathered from the aircraft navigational systems. Enhanced Vision systems add real-time information from external sensors, such as an infrared camera.

General aviation Edit Garmin G displays in a Cessna Note the three analog standby instruments near the bottom of the main instrument panel. Many modern general aviation aircraft are available with glass cockpits. Systems such as the Garmin G are now available on many new GA aircraft, including the classic Cessna Many small aircraft can also be modified post-production to replace analogue instruments.

Glass cockpits are also popular as a retrofit for older private jets and turboprops such as Dassault Falcons , Raytheon Hawkers , Bombardier Challengers , Cessna Citations , Gulfstreams , King Airs , Learjets , Astras , and many others. Aviation service companies work closely with equipment manufacturers to address the needs of the owners of these aircraft.

They demonstrate how the "glass cockpit" idea is being applied to consumer devices. Applications include toy-grade UAVs which use the display and touch screen of a tablet or smartphone to employ every aspect of the "glass cockpit" for instrument display, and fly-by-wire for aircraft control. The articles mentioned how glass cockpit components had the added benefit of being a few hundred pounds lighter than the original flight instruments and support systems used in the space shuttles.

The Space Shuttle Atlantis was the first orbiter to be retrofitted with a glass cockpit in with the launch of STS Safety Edit As aircraft operation depends on glass cockpit systems, flight crews must be trained to deal with possible failures.

It is electronically separate from the main instruments and can run for several hours on a backup battery. In , the NTSB published a study done on 8, general aviation light aircraft. The study found that, although aircraft equipped with glass cockpits had a lower overall accident rate, they also had a larger chance of being involved in a fatal accident. While the technological innovations and flight management tools that glass cockpit equipped airplanes bring to the general aviation community should reduce the number of fatal accidents, we have not—unfortunately—seen that happen.


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This book presents an in-depth analysis of the essential concepts of the instrumentation and control systems. The book introduces the students to instrumentation system and explains its designs, component selection and environmental effects. The statistical methods of data analysis and estimation of uncertainties are presented for an appropriate evaluation of the measured values. Dimensional metrology including the recent advancements is presented in an easy-to-grasp manner.


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