Edson Lucas dos Santos: moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree, commonly known as the mangaba tree, which is widespread throughout Brazil. The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine for medicinal purposes. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a physicochemical characterization, identify the lipophilic antioxidants and fatty acids, and determine the microbiological quality and safety of H.
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Edson Lucas dos Santos: moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree, commonly known as the mangaba tree, which is widespread throughout Brazil.
The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine for medicinal purposes. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a physicochemical characterization, identify the lipophilic antioxidants and fatty acids, and determine the microbiological quality and safety of H. In addition, the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extract of H. Furthermore, this study aimed at assessing the in vivo effects of the EEHS on the glycemia of normoglycemic and diabetic Wistar rats.
Physicochemical characterization was performed by colorimetry and gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection GC-FID. The total number of colonies of aerobic mesophiles, molds, and yeasts was determined.
The total coliforms and Escherichia coli were counted using the SimPlates kit, and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores were quantified using the sulphite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine agar method.
Salmonella spp. The antimutagenic activity was determined using the Ames test. The in vivo effects of the EEHS were assessed using the oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic Wistar rats and measuring the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The results demonstrated physical-chemical parameters of microbiological quality and safety in the leaves of H.
In in vivo assays, it was shown that the normoglycemic rats challenged with glucose overload show significantly decreased blood glucose levels when treated with the EEHS.
Taken together, the results ensure the microbiological quality and safety as well as showing the contents of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids of H. Introduction In different cultures worldwide, medicinal plants are used for therapeutic purposes. Although the microbiological quality of these materials is still rarely discussed, it is essential to achieve the expected pharmacological outcomes. Plant materials for medicinal purposes need to have acceptable microbial contamination levels and no deterioration or pathogenic microorganisms [ 1 ].
These basic criteria must be assessed and followed to obtain plant samples with quality, safety, and therapeutic efficacy [ 2 , 3 ]. In Brazil, several plants are used in traditional medicine, including Hancornia speciosa Gomes H. This fruit tree, commonly known as the mangaba tree, belongs to the Apocynaceae family, and its leaves are sold as tea [ 4 ].
This species is native to Brazil and is found in the Amazonia, Caatinga, and Atlantic forests as well as the Cerrado Brazilian savannah biomes. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic [ 4 ], anti-inflammatory [ 5 , 6 ], wound-healing [ 6 ], vasodilation [ 7 , 8 ], antihypertensive [ 9 , 10 ], antidiabetic [ 11 ], and acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting [ 12 ] activities of H.
Previously reported phytochemical studies with H. Recently, Bastos et al. Natural extracts and phenolic derivatives with pharmacological potential may serve as a safe and cost-effective treatment strategy as an alternative to synthetic drugs [ 16 — 19 ].
Furthermore, natural products or derivatives play a key role in the process of the development and discovery of new compounds or drugs [ 21 ]. In addition, the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and inhibitory activities against enzymes related to neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, obesity, and diabetes of the ethanolic extract of H. Furthermore, this study aimed to assess the in vivo effects of the EEHS on the glycemia of normoglycemic and diabetic Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods 2. The mixture was kept at room temperature for 14 days. Physicochemical Analysis 2. Ash Content The method used to determine the ash content of H. The protein concentration was determined by multiplying the value of the total nitrogen by the factor 5.
The absorbance of the filtrate was measured at , , , and nm. Fatty Acid Composition The total lipids extracted from dried and powdered leaf samples of H. After this period, 3 mL of deionized water and 3 mL of diethyl ether were added.
The mixture was stirred and left to stand until phase separation. The upper phase of fatty acid methyl esters FAMEs was recovered using an anhydrous sodium sulfate microcolumn and transferred to a glass vial using a 0. The total analysis time was The gas hydrogen was maintained at a flow rate of 4. The results were processed using CSW 1. Microbiological Tests The following parameters were assessed: mesophilic microorganisms, molds, yeasts, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, and Salmonella spp.
All microbiological tests were performed in triplicate. Sample Preparation The samples were prepared as previously described by Gomes et al. For this, 25 g of dried and powdered leaves of H. After 24 hours, serial dilutions were prepared from this homogenate initial dilution with the same sterile diluents that were used for quantification of the different microorganisms. Total Mesophilic Count The mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were counted by adding 1 mL of each dilution of the leaves of H.
Mold and Yeast Counts Molds and yeasts were counted by adding 1 mL of the dilution of the leaves of H. Staphylococcus aureus Count Staphylococcus aureus S.
Serial dilutions of the leaves of H. Subsequently, three to five typical colonies were selected to control for the presence of coagulase and catalase.
For this, 1 mL aliquots of the serial dilutions of the leaves of H. The SimPlate has undergone slight rotations to disperse the sample and remove the air bubbles. The positive count of total coliforms was based on the change in color from blue to pink, and the positive count of E.
Coliforms and E. The results are determined based on the enumeration of sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores in 0. Detection Salmonella spp. Antioxidant Activity Assessment 2. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy human donors after they signed the informed consent form.
Blood plasma and the thin layer of leukocytes were removed. Erythrocytes incubated with PBS, the extract, and flavonoids only were used as negative controls. After every 60 min of incubation, the samples were centrifuged at rpm for 10 min, and an aliquot was collected from the supernatant, followed by dilution in PBS. Then, the samples were read at nm. The assays were performed in triplicate. Percentage values were set for the third hour of incubation.
The percentage of inhibition of hemolysis as a function of the sample concentration was also determined from the concentration-response curve. Antimutagenic Activity The antimutagenic activity was assessed using the Ames test, with some modifications [ 31 ]. Two strains were used for the assay, Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA, genetically modified with a mutation in the histidine operator gene, which causes the strains to grow in a histidine-dependent manner.
Enzyme-Inhibiting Activity Assessment 2. Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Activity The acetylthiocholinesterase- AChE- and butyrylthiocholinesterase- BChE- inhibiting activities were assessed based on the spectrophotometric method described by Senol et al.
The same procedure was performed to evaluate the activity of butyrylcholinesterase BChE from horse serum EC 3. All tests were performed in triplicate. Eserine 0. The IC50 values were calculated. Tyrosinase-Inhibiting Activity The tyrosinase-inhibiting activity was assessed using the method described by Orhan and Khan [ 33 ], with some modifications.
The reading of the absorbance was performed at nm. Kojic acid 2. Hyaluronidase-Inhibiting Activity The assay was performed as described by Ling et al. The undigested hyaluronic acid was precipitated with 1 mL of acidic albumin solution 0.
Posteriorly, the samples were incubated at room temperature for 10 min. Absorbance in the absence of enzyme was used as a reference for maximal inhibition. The tests were performed in triplicate. Blue starch Sigma-Aldrich; 2. Then, the starch azure solution was preincubated for 10 min at 37 C. The absorbance of the supernatant at nm was measured. The enzymatic hydrolysis of substrate was monitored through the amount of p-nitrophenol released in the reaction mixture at nm.
Individual blanks were prepared for correcting background absorbance, being the enzymes replaced by 0. In controls, the plant extract or flavonoids were replaced by methanol. The IC50 values were compared; analyses were carried out in triplicate. EEHS or flavonoids final concentrations of 2.
The activity of the negative control DMSO was also evaluated with and without an inhibitor. Orlistat 0. In Vivo Studies 2. All animals were fed ad libitum. Blood glucose levels were determined 96 h after the induction of diabetes using a portable Accu-Chek Abbott blood glucose meter and disposable strips.
The blood glucose levels of the rats were measured at times of 0, 30, 60, , and min using the Accu-Chek Active Roche blood glucose meter and disposable strips.
Mangaba – Hancornia speciosa
Zulkisho Hancorina the genetic differentiation among varieties of the Neotropical savanna tree Hancornia speciosa Gomes Rosane G Collevatti. Sul Goiana Km 01, Cx. TaARF4 genes are linked to root growth and plant height in wheat. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic.
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